Wild vegetation runs from tropical rainforest to arid grasslands with cactus, with cypress trees along rivers and other surface water.
Wildlife includes raccoons, quail, rabbits, skunks and migratory birds.
It has an average altitude of 2,015 meters (6,611 ft) above sea level, with its territory divided among three of Mexico's physical regions, the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Mexican Plateau and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.
The Sierra Madre Oriental in Guanajuato consists of the Sierra Gorda and the Sierra del Azafrán in the northeast.
The Sierra Gorda is part of the Sierra Madre Occidental, with extreme variations in its geography and climate.